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Saturday is a work day in Juba, but it’s also a day (the only day) when we have reliable internet because we’re not at the Ministries.  Taking advantage of this improved access, I wanted to post some of the articles that I managed to read during the week and thought that other people might find interesting.


During the Q&A session following Secretary Clinton’s speech on the Internet and freedom (previously discussed here), she said something that warmed my young heart: “We need the guidance of technology experts. In my experience, most of them are younger than 40, but not all are younger than 40.”

I was reminded of this recently when a colleague from a competitor firm bragged to USAID that his entire team was under 30.  His theory, which was greeted by sage nodding from the USAID delegation, is that most people who operate technology in South Sudan are under 30 and that their cultural deference to older people would make it difficult to create the peer relationships necessary to understand – and solve – IT challenges.  His approach was to take smart, young people who are interested in working in Africa and release them into the provinces of South Sudan with a laptop, a Sudanese colleague, and a boda-boda driver.  Good intentions, quick thinking, and the ability to quickly build rapport would win the day.

Deloitte’s approach (and the USAID approval process) prefers more experience.  For example, we are in the process of deploying a Financial Management Information System in South Sudan and our entire team has worked on similar problems for decades.  They have the grey hair to prove it.  There are manifest advantages to having a team that knows what it is doing: they remember what has worked (and failed) before, they understand the range of applicable solutions, and they don’t have to reinvent the wheel.  In this model, subject matter expertise, the ability to anticipate future challenges, and gravitas carry the day.

These options are not mutually exclusive.  Successfully deploying a new system requires teams that include both members with significant experience and younger members for whom it will be easier to connect with local IT staff.  (This is also a great way to get analysts and consultants out of the home office and into the field.)  While every project requires a different mix of capabilities, I think that the right team can be formed based on the following principles:

Understand the Audience. I am uncomfortable arguing that age alone determines the ability to forge successful relationships, but I think that it is a factor.  The guy in the server room, the computer operator, and the analysts (i.e. the people who use the technology) are young.  The managers and the political leadership (i.e. the people who make decisions about the technology) tend to be older.  Understanding this dynamic and structuring project teams to effectively work with this range of technical capability and leadership experience, is important.

Furthermore, as part of our efforts to build capacity, it would be incredibly valuable to match junior-level IT personnel with junior-level advisors, just as we match senior policy makers with experienced practitioners.  The IT environment – its security, reliability, and accessibility – has a huge impact on our ability to deliver effective solutions.  Mentoring the guys in the server rooms and working with them to provide a better infrastructure could be multiple the impact of the project.

Understand the Technology. The public sector in emerging markets tends to have limited infrastructure and technical capacity.  While deploying a client-server (or even a cloud-based) architecture may be the preferable long-term solution, this approach requires whole-scale modifications to the operating environment.  These modifications are costly, complicated, and chancy.  For example, a 2006 survey on eGovernment in developing countries found that only 15% of implementations were fully successful.  Today in South Sudan, the government relies on a primarily paper-based process for recruitment, appointments, and payroll.  Admittedly, this process is inefficient, inaccurate, and inflexible, but it still exists 60 years after it was implemented by the colonial government.  

While I disagree with solutions that reduce everything to an Excel spreadsheet (much less paper), simple prototypes that can be designed, developed and deployed quickly can be more effective.  Designing these prototypes requires a deep understanding of the problem, but doesn’t require extensive technical skills.  Deploying staff that gravitates to the simpler, less disruptive and (potentially) longer-lasting solutions can help implement technology that is more sustainable over time.

Understand your Goal. eGovernment systems achieve multiple goals: they streamline (and sometimes create) processes, they improve data quality, and they allow governments to perform new services.   They require inter-disciplinary teams that are able to understand the regulatory environment, improve the existing business processes, develop systems, and provide training on the solution.  If you think about these projects as purely technology – or, worse, structure your team with only technologists – you will be less likely to succeed.

I have no clue whether this broad scope means that teams should be younger or older, but I think it is a powerful argument for diversity.  Technology projects demand teams with varied competencies and (some) of these skills can be best provided by younger staff.

Coverage of Secretary Clinton’€™s speech at the Newseum on Internet Freedom has focused on its repudiation of censorship and its rebuke to China, but I was most interested in the section that discussed the role of technology in promoting the freedom from want (a.k.a. reducing poverty).  The speech included an intriguing example of how technology could close the feedback loop between beneficiaries and donor agencies and increase accountability:

Let me give you one example. Let’s say I want to create a mobile phone application that would allow people to rate government ministries, including ours, on their responsiveness and efficiency and also to ferret out and report corruption. The hardware required to make this idea work is already in the hands of billions of potential users. And the software involved would be relatively inexpensive to develop and deploy.

If people took advantage of this tool, it would help us target our foreign assistance spending, improve lives, and encourage foreign investment in countries with responsible governments. However, right now, mobile application developers have no financial assistance to pursue that project on their own, and the State Department currently lacks a mechanism to make it happen.   But this initiative should help resolve that problem and provide long-term dividends from modest investments in innovation.

The speech did not contain details about the shape of this initiative, but I hope that the Department of State goes beyond the typical response of providing funding and training.   Unlocking the potential of mobile developers in emerging markets and spurring economic growth requires two additional steps beyond more money and more capacity:

Create and Promote Tools for Developers. The open source community has been leading the way in mobile application development for emerging markets with tools like FrontlineSMS , which enables mass communication through text messages, and Ushahidi , which creates maps based on information submitted by SMS.   Both these tools require developers to install and maintain servers, which isn’t always feasible, and are only available to NGOs, which excludes local entrepreneurs.  The United States could help accelerate the creation of new mobile tools by provided hosted versions of these tools similar to Google App Engine or the instance of the wordpress.orgblogging software.   In addition, it should support innovative, open-source tools, by requiring implementing partners to use them.

Advocate for Governments to Improve Regulation of SMS. In the 2008 report ICT Access and Usage in Africaby , researchers found that Kenyans in the bottom 75% in terms of disposable income spent 63% of their disposable income on monthly mobile fees.     The cost of sending text messages, which cost nothing to transmit on GSM networks, eats up a significant amount of that expenditure.   Certain premium services, such as Google’s Trader, which allows people in Uganda to buy and sell goods via SMS, cost even more.  The State Department should encourage countries that receive development assistance to pressure mobile networks to drop the price of sending text messages.   This would be help poor people throughout Africa by reducing their mobile costs and would help spur innovation in the mobile application development market.

It was exciting to see the Secretary of State speaking enthusiastically about the role of technology in achieving the US Government’s foreign policy objectives.  I hope that they think about more than just pouring in money.

On Saturday night, in the mess in Juba, the members of my project started discussing how best to use ICT to promote development.  Here’s my answer: develop platforms and encourage the local government and private sector to build on those platforms.

Platforms provide a common infrastructure, accepted standards, a consistent governance structure, and established service expectations.  Platforms can refer to computers or networks (the Internet is a platform) but also to a legal framework that regulates a sector of the economy or a microfinance program that provides credit to entrepreneurs.  It is a structure – occasionally physical, but also conceptual – that permits growth.  By articulating the rules of the road and building infrastructure that can be used by multiple stakeholders, development projects can meet the objectives of the donor while still creating space for local partners to pursue their own goals.

What would this look like in practice?

Common Infrastructure. In South Sudan, deploying an enterprise system faces three hurdles: limited local technical capacity, unreliable electricity, and inadequate connectivity.  Currently we address these problems in the context of our individual projects.  We deploy generators and V-Sat connections at each project office and Ministry.  When the Bank of Southern Sudan decides that it wants to allow local banks to make electronic transfers, it constructs a microwave mast.  When the Financial Management Information System project needs a local database administrator, it offers specialized training.   When the Human Resources Information System team wants to overcome the absence of connectivity in the regional States, it updates the system design to accommodate asynchronous information exchange by placing files on solid-state media such as CDs.  In each case, the project team adopts the most efficient solutions to its specific problem, but holistically this eliminates the incentives within the broader community to coordinate efforts and enjoy economies of scale.

By designing a single, comprehensive network and identifying technical competencies that can be used on multiple projects, we would be able to develop products that don’t rely on ad-hoc solutions and specific personnel.  In addition, by opening this infrastructure to the broader community, we could provide the scaffolding that other projects and local firms can use to build their own solutions.

Accepted Standards. The proliferation of technologies and standards, an unfortunate byproduct of ad-hoc infrastructure development, saps resources and prevents the deployment of scalable solutions.  In Juba, for example, there is limited interoperability between cell phone networks.  Beyond the inconvenience and expense of requiring people to use multiple cells phones, the competing options undermine the provision of new services such as m-banking.  By clearly articulating technical standards and ensuring interoperability between solutions, we will lower the barriers to entry and make it easier for local firms to take the initiative to provide services.

In addition, the adoption of standards serves as an auto-catalyst, accelerating the effects of incremental improvements as their benefits compound overtime.  For example, by employing data-exchange standards for financial transactions, we can connect the payroll system to the financial management system and ensure that they work seamlessly even if they were not originally designed to be interoperable.   Standards allow independent teams to build small pieces while making sure that the larger puzzle fits together.  They make sure that our solutions are flexible enough to adapt to future problems that we cannot imagine today.

A Consistent Governance Structure. Successful platforms attract a range of users and these users must be confident that the platform will not suddenly disappear under their feet.   Common infrastructure and standards require management that is accountable and transparent.  They require operational teams to conduct maintenance, compliance committees to provide oversight of the standards, and administrative ownership to ensure a reliable funding stream.

In the developing country context, a governance structure must be strong enough to maintain the existing investment and flexible enough to adapt to unforeseen developments. It is not enough to deploy hardware and hope.  Deploying a structure that engages local government, private sector, and the development community will increase the likelihood that the platform attracts users and provides benefits into the future.  It also increases the likelihood that the platform can adapt and become a sustainable asset for the country.

Established Service Expectations. Organizations build their own infrastructure due to a limited market for ICT solutions, a lack of confidence in the quality of services, and then absence of information to price offerings.  This leads to a situation in which each ministry and project creates its own infrastructure that is expensive and frequently inadequate.   In addition to the cost, this dynamic creates variance between the capabilities of different organizations and creates new obstacles to designing solutions that can work in multiple environments.

Service expectations specify the reliability, speed, and cost of a platform.  They allow multiple providers to emerge while ensuring that each provider adheres to a minimal level of accepted performance.  Over time, this will lead to a competitive marketplace that can provide basic ICT services to the government, the donor community and the private sector.

By promoting a common infrastructure, accepted standards, a consistent governance structure and established service expectations we can create an environment that leads to accelerated growth in ICT.   This moves beyond our current efforts at deploying specific systems and would help create a sustainable foundation on which our partners can build.

Thursday’s op-ed by David Brooks reviews strategies that reduce poverty in developing countries and finds the existing approaches to be lacking.  Brooks proposes a new solution based on US-based anti-poverty strategies such as the Harlem Children’s Zone and No Excuses Schools which attempt to inculcate values believed to lead to greater prosperity.  He unabashedly calls this approach “intrusive paternalism”.

“[Intrusive paternalism] programs…are led by people who figure they don’t understand all the factors that have contributed to poverty, but they don’t care. They are going to replace parts of the local culture with a highly demanding, highly intensive culture of achievement — involving everything from new child-rearing practices to stricter schools to better job performance.”

My experience in South Sudan makes me skeptical that this approach will work in the developing country context.  Beyond my discomfort with the idea that people in the developing countries share a culture, chronic instability creates barriers that people in the US who are trying to escape poverty don’t face.  In US cities, neighborhoods with endemic poverty are a subway ride away from wealthier zip codes.  Americans living in poverty must overcome social and educational constraints, but they benefit from the opportunities of the society in which they live.  That is not the case everywhere in the world.  Somalia, which is reported to have a thriving entrepreneurial culture despite the constant state of chaos, shows that wanting to achieve is not always enough.

In South Sudan, the prospect of renewed violence casts a pall over any decision about the future.  The conventional wisdom is that now is a time to eat, not a time to build.  Convincing the South Sudanese that they can succeed is important, but that requires ensuring that the fragile peace will endure and not just imposing notions that they could be successful if only they worked harder.