On Saturday night, in the mess in Juba, the members of my project started discussing how best to use ICT to promote development.  Here’s my answer: develop platforms and encourage the local government and private sector to build on those platforms.

Platforms provide a common infrastructure, accepted standards, a consistent governance structure, and established service expectations.  Platforms can refer to computers or networks (the Internet is a platform) but also to a legal framework that regulates a sector of the economy or a microfinance program that provides credit to entrepreneurs.  It is a structure – occasionally physical, but also conceptual – that permits growth.  By articulating the rules of the road and building infrastructure that can be used by multiple stakeholders, development projects can meet the objectives of the donor while still creating space for local partners to pursue their own goals.

What would this look like in practice?

Common Infrastructure. In South Sudan, deploying an enterprise system faces three hurdles: limited local technical capacity, unreliable electricity, and inadequate connectivity.  Currently we address these problems in the context of our individual projects.  We deploy generators and V-Sat connections at each project office and Ministry.  When the Bank of Southern Sudan decides that it wants to allow local banks to make electronic transfers, it constructs a microwave mast.  When the Financial Management Information System project needs a local database administrator, it offers specialized training.   When the Human Resources Information System team wants to overcome the absence of connectivity in the regional States, it updates the system design to accommodate asynchronous information exchange by placing files on solid-state media such as CDs.  In each case, the project team adopts the most efficient solutions to its specific problem, but holistically this eliminates the incentives within the broader community to coordinate efforts and enjoy economies of scale.

By designing a single, comprehensive network and identifying technical competencies that can be used on multiple projects, we would be able to develop products that don’t rely on ad-hoc solutions and specific personnel.  In addition, by opening this infrastructure to the broader community, we could provide the scaffolding that other projects and local firms can use to build their own solutions.

Accepted Standards. The proliferation of technologies and standards, an unfortunate byproduct of ad-hoc infrastructure development, saps resources and prevents the deployment of scalable solutions.  In Juba, for example, there is limited interoperability between cell phone networks.  Beyond the inconvenience and expense of requiring people to use multiple cells phones, the competing options undermine the provision of new services such as m-banking.  By clearly articulating technical standards and ensuring interoperability between solutions, we will lower the barriers to entry and make it easier for local firms to take the initiative to provide services.

In addition, the adoption of standards serves as an auto-catalyst, accelerating the effects of incremental improvements as their benefits compound overtime.  For example, by employing data-exchange standards for financial transactions, we can connect the payroll system to the financial management system and ensure that they work seamlessly even if they were not originally designed to be interoperable.   Standards allow independent teams to build small pieces while making sure that the larger puzzle fits together.  They make sure that our solutions are flexible enough to adapt to future problems that we cannot imagine today.

A Consistent Governance Structure. Successful platforms attract a range of users and these users must be confident that the platform will not suddenly disappear under their feet.   Common infrastructure and standards require management that is accountable and transparent.  They require operational teams to conduct maintenance, compliance committees to provide oversight of the standards, and administrative ownership to ensure a reliable funding stream.

In the developing country context, a governance structure must be strong enough to maintain the existing investment and flexible enough to adapt to unforeseen developments. It is not enough to deploy hardware and hope.  Deploying a structure that engages local government, private sector, and the development community will increase the likelihood that the platform attracts users and provides benefits into the future.  It also increases the likelihood that the platform can adapt and become a sustainable asset for the country.

Established Service Expectations. Organizations build their own infrastructure due to a limited market for ICT solutions, a lack of confidence in the quality of services, and then absence of information to price offerings.  This leads to a situation in which each ministry and project creates its own infrastructure that is expensive and frequently inadequate.   In addition to the cost, this dynamic creates variance between the capabilities of different organizations and creates new obstacles to designing solutions that can work in multiple environments.

Service expectations specify the reliability, speed, and cost of a platform.  They allow multiple providers to emerge while ensuring that each provider adheres to a minimal level of accepted performance.  Over time, this will lead to a competitive marketplace that can provide basic ICT services to the government, the donor community and the private sector.

By promoting a common infrastructure, accepted standards, a consistent governance structure and established service expectations we can create an environment that leads to accelerated growth in ICT.   This moves beyond our current efforts at deploying specific systems and would help create a sustainable foundation on which our partners can build.